Home Alkenes Chem 230 Practicals Past Exam Papers

Chem 230

This page was last updated on 09-Apr-15

Revision exercises - try your hand at these. 

These are not for a grade, just for practice.  I shall be happy to help you if I can see you have tried first.

Alcohols revision - password required for copyright reasons

Alkanes revision - password required for copyright reasons

Synthesis exercises

Reading exercises for 28 March 2015

Alcohols - background

Dehydration of alcohols

Reaction of alchols with sodium

Replacing the hydroxyl group of alchohols with halogen

Formation of esters from alcohols

Oxidation of alcohols

Phenol - background

Acid properties of phenol

Cleavage of ethers

Aromatic compounds


Nitration of benzene and methyl benzene

Halogenation of benzene - for some reason they don't mention reaction with iodine here.

Acylation and alkylation of benzene

Sulfonation and other reactions of benzene and its derivatives

Reactions of benzene and its derivatives, with mechanism - this is all you need to know, and more.

Organic reaction mechanisms - select the ones you want.


The above list is quite a lot.  Concentrate on what we cover in class. 




Reading exercises for 23 March 2015

Haloalkanes - introduction - chemguide.co.uk previously recommended.

Mechanisms of reaction of organic halides - more advanced (previously posted, but revised 21 March 2015).  Deals with the main mechanisms of reaction: SN1, SN2, E1, E2.

Reaction with hydroxide ions - chemguide.co.uk

Reaction with cyanide ion- chemguide.co.uk

Reaction with ammonia - chemguide.co.uk


Substitution reactions of haloalkanes - tutorvista.com - NB. Halide ions are not generally considered weak nucleophiles, contrary to what is mentioned on the linked page.

Most of this material is relevant to the course, but do not bother with the reactions involving "hydrosulphide" (HS-), nor "mecaptide" (RS-), nor "alkynyl" (-CɼC-R) (the last 3 reactions mentioned).


Reading exercise 15 March 2015

Plane polarised light and optically active compounds

Optical isomerism from Chemguide - make sure you try the questions

Optical isomerism from ChemWiki

Racemic mixtures and optical excess from ChemWiki

Meso compounds - master organic chem - This article mentions some different ways of representing the stereochemistry of a molecule, which students do not have to bother with.  See below.

Enantiomeric excess and optical purity

Diastereoisomers and enantiomers - Sparknotes.com

Some of the above sources use sawhorse projections, e.g.

(Diagram from http://www.sparknotes.com/chemistry/organic3/enantiomersanddiastereomers/section2.rhtml)

According to the convention, the front carbon is always the lower left one.  Not everyone seems to follow that system.

Another way of showing stereochemistry is the Newman projection, e.g.

(Diagram from http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/carey5e/Ch03/ch3-diagrams.html)

Here the front carbon is indicated by the dot, and the rear one by the circle.



Some answers and guidance.



Alkanes - Wikibooks



All previous material has been concentrated in the page linked above.

Monday 2nd March lecture: oxidation and polymerisation of alkenes.

Review this page for the oxidation of alkenes with cold, dilute, alkaline potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution (a crude test for unsaturation) and hot KMnO4(aq) - a much stronger oxidising agent.  (Details of the reactions are not required.)  Another reaction we shall mention is "reductive ozonolysis".  Also review this page about polymerisation of akenes.  (This goes into more detail than required.)


Your marks so far



Homeworks for submission


Chem_230_H2 structures&isomers_01-20015.pdf

Chem_230_H1 bonding_01-20015.pdf

Chem_230_H3 01-20015.pdf - Answer key

Chem 230 H4 Optical isomerism - Answer key


Chem_230_H5_- synthesis and mechanism


Get up to speed with organic nomenclature - do these quizzes:

Multiple choice quizz - alkanes

Write in the name quizz - alkanes

Nomenclature of alkenes 1

Nomenclature of alkenes 2

(All the above are from Doc Brown's chemistry site.)


Reading exercises on nomenclature

Make sure you study these:

How to name organic compounds (1) - part of a large chemistry website in the UK

Naming organic compounds (2) - further functional groups present (Naming of amines does not seem to be in accordance with the IUPAC standard.)

Naming organic compounds (3) - aromatic compounds (derivatives of benzene)

E/Z and cis-/trans- naming convention

Keep abreast of what we do in class.


Isomerism in organic chemistry

Isomerism in organic chemistry from Chem Guide

Types of isomerism succinctly described - more advanced overview


Reading exercise on properties of alkanes




Leah's organic chemistry site



First prac and rules.pdf  - superceded by:

Chem230\Documents\Chem230 manual 2015 part 1-1.pdf  (Please use this version.)

How to write an organic lab report.pdf


Links for first few lectures

Introduction to electronic structure and bonding


Useful Links

All about organic solvents - polar, non-polar, protic, aprotic

Chemsketch - a free organic structure drawing tool

Guide to ChemSketch - gets you started quickly and easily


Try some of these quizzes!

Doc Brown's chemistry website - look at the "A" level revision notes and quizzes

Uniqueness of carbon - visionlearning.com

Curly arrows in organic chemistry - an organic chemistry website

How to name organic compounds - A Michigan State University website
How to name organic compounds - part of a large chemistry website in the UK


"Master organic chemistry" website

Emolecules - a site to find the structure of any molecule you can put a name to!

Graphical representation of stereochemical configuration - IUPAC recommendations

IUPAC Gold Book


Useful Materials

Free on-line organic chemistry textbooks

Two in particular you might like to look at:




Course Outline

Past exam papers